Reciprocity and Asymmetry in Social Networks

Map of North Pacific showing the North American Northwest Coast, Kodiak, the Kuril Islands, Hokkaido and Kamchatka, with early 20th c. photos of Indigenous Ainu and 19th century illustrations by Tikhanov depicting Kodiak Sugpiaq.
Fitzhugh, Ben. (2020) “Reciprocity and Asymmetry in Social Networks: Dependency and Inequality in North Pacific Comparative Perspective.” Chapter 14 in, Inequality Before Farming: Multidisciplinary approaches to the study of social organization in prehistoric and ethnographic hunter-gatherer-fisher societies, Luc Moreau, editor. Cambridge, U.K.: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. Pp. 233-254.